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A battery is an electrochemical device that stores and delivers energy.

Energy is chemically stored in the battery and when the terminals of the battery
are connected through a resistive load, electrical energy passes through the circuit.

Voltage/Electromotive Force (Volt,V,E): The electrical pressure driving electrons through a conductor.

Open Circuit Voltage (OCV): The voltage of a battery in the absence of a charge or discharge current.

Voltage Under Load (VUL): The voltage of a battery in the presence of a discharge current.

End of Discharge Voltage (EODV): The voltage of a battery at the end of discharge while under load.

End of Charge Voltage (EOCV): The voltage of a battery at the end of charge while still on charge.

Specific Gravity (SG): The density (mass/volume) of the liquid (electrolyte) relative to water, at the same temperature.

Ampere (A): The rate of flow of electrons. Electrical current.

Ampere-Hour (AH): A measure of current over time. Battery capacity (Ampere-Hour = Amps x Hours).

Watts (W): The rate of using energy to do work. (Watts = Volts x Amps).

Watt-Hour (WH): The measure of power over time. Energy (Watt-hours = Volts x Amps x Hours).

There are a number of factors affecting an alternator's ability to adequately charge a battery. The greatest factors are:

  1. How much current (amps) from the alternator is diverted to the battery to charge
  2. How long the current is available (drive time)
  3. Battery temperature
  4. Battery age

Generally, running the engine at idle or short stop-and-go trips, during bad weather at night, will not recharge the battery effectively.

In the following situations, the alternator will not adequately recharge a battery:

  1. The battery is drained because an interior light was left on in the car for 18-24 hours.
  2. The battery is drained because the vehicle has not been driven for a month or more.
  3. The car is only driven at 60 km/h (35 mph) to a nearby store and back 2 or 3 days a week.

Battery Council Industry (BCI) specifies standard battery sizes and configurations by group size. This includes standard overall size – length, width and height of the battery – and standard terminal type and position.

This industry rating measures the power a battery has available to start a vehicle’s engine at -17.8 degrees celcius or zero degrees Fahrenheit.

For a 12V SLI (Starting, lighting, ignition) battery, BCI defines CCA as the amount of current (number of amperes) a lead-acid battery at -17.8 degrees celcius or 0 degrees Fahrenheit can deliver for 30 seconds while maintaining at least 7.2 volts.

A battery’s RC represents the length of time a battery can maintain a vehicle’s electrical needs in the event of a charging system failure (alternator failure). BCI (Battery Council Industry) defines RC for a 12V SLI (Starting, lighting, ignition) battery as the amount of time (in minutes) that a battery can deliver 25 amps at 27 degrees celcius or 80 degrees farenheit while maintaining terminal voltage of at least 10.5 volts.

Installation


Turn off engine, all accessories and key off.

Hankook AtlasBX – Technical Information, Battery Maintenance, Installation and recharging 01
Remove the negative cable (Ground) first, and then positive cable from the old battery.

Hankook AtlasBX – Technical Information, Battery Maintenance, Installation and recharging 02
Remove the hold-down bracket or clamp.

Hankook AtlasBX – Technical Information, Battery Maintenance, Installation and recharging 03
Replace with new battery and fix it with hold-down bracket or clamp.
Hankook AtlasBX – Technical Information, Battery Maintenance, Installation and recharging 04

Connect cables in reverse order from positive to negative

Hankook AtlasBX – Technical Information, Battery Maintenance, Installation and recharging 05
If clamp or cables are corroded, remove corroded material and grease it

Recharging

  • If the battery is below 12.4V or fails to pass the load test, battery must be recharged as soon as possible to prevent lead sulfation. During charge, if the battery sprays electrolyte through the vent holes or gets hot (over 52℃), the charge must be stopped for a time to allow the battery to cool.
  • Batteries must be appropriately charged to ensure proper mixing of electrolyte avoiding stratification.
  • Batteries should be charged after every use to ensure they are never stored in a discharged condition.
  • If batteries are stored for extended periods of time they should be charged frequently and should be connected to a smart battery maintainer.
  • Lead-acid batteries DO NOT have a memory affect (they do not need to be fully discharged prior to charging)


Constant current charge method
  1. Measure the OCV(Open Circuit Voltage)of a discharged battery.
  2. Connect the battery to constant current charger and start charging.
  3. When the charging time is completed, separate battery from the charger.

Constant voltage charge method
  1. Connect the discharged battery to constant voltage charger.
  2. Charge for 24 hours as following voltage upon battery type.

    - 12V MF Battery: 16V
    - 12V AGM Battery: 14.4V

  3. When the charging time is completed, separate battery from the charger.

Precaution

If treated with care and taking the proper precautions, lead acid batteries can be handled safely with minimum risk.
However, lead acid batteries contain sulfuric acid which is both poisonous and corrosive.
This makes them potentially hazardous and can cause serious injury when standard handling procedures and safety measures are not respected.

  • Hankook AtlasBX – Technical Information, Battery Maintenance, How to handle battery, Battery Precautions 01

    No sparks, flames or Smoking.

  • Hankook AtlasBX – Technical Information, Battery Maintenance, How to handle battery, Battery Precautions 02

    Shield eyes.

  • Hankook AtlasBX – Technical Information, Battery Maintenance, How to handle battery, Battery Precautions 03

    Keep children away.

  • Hankook AtlasBX – Technical Information, Battery Maintenance, How to handle battery, Battery Precautions 04

    Corrosive hazard.

  • Hankook AtlasBX – Technical Information, Battery Maintenance, How to handle battery, Battery Precautions 05

    Explosion hazard.

  • Hankook AtlasBX – Technical Information, Battery Maintenance, How to handle battery, Battery Precautions 06

    Read instruction manual carefully.

  • Hankook AtlasBX – Technical Information, Battery Maintenance, How to handle battery, Battery Precautions 07Flush eyes immediately with water. Get medical help fast.

Safety

  • Always wear acid resistant clothing, protective goggles, PVC gloves and rubber boots.
  • Avoid smoking, sparks and flames near operating or charging lead acid batteries.
  • Keep metal objects away from terminals.
  • Batteries are heavy. Lift carefully and do not place on unstable surfaces.
  • Always wear protective clothing, gloves and goggles when handling batteries
  • Do not smoke near batteries
  • Neutralize acid spills with baking soda immediately
  • Charge with vent caps securely in place
  • Provide proper ventilation during charging to prevent gas build up.
  • Keep flames, sparks or metal objects away from batteries (use insulated tools)
  • Keep batteries clean and dry
  • Check that all vent caps are tight
  • Check that all connections are tight (see recommended torque values)
  • Use a solution of baking soda and water to clean if there is acid residue on batteries or corrosion on the terminals

Emergency Action

  • Splashes in eyes : Wash out the eye with plenty of water for at least 15 minutes.
  • Splashes on skin : Remove contaminated clothing carefully and wash the affected skin areas with plenty of water
  • Swallowed : Drink copious amounts of milk of magnesia, water or milk. Do not induce vomiting.

Storage

  • Keep batteries upright.
  • Never stack over 4 layers.
  • Batteries should not be directly exposed to the sun.
  • Never drop, never overthrow.
  • Keep batteries clean and always store in a cool, dry place.
  • Terminal protectors or protectant spray can be applied to terminals to reduce corrosion
  • Batteries should be fully charged prior to and during storage
  • Never store discharged batteries
  • Store batteries in a cool, dry place 
  • Recharge batteries prior to putting them back into service, ensuring they are fully charged

Test

Visual Test

  • Check the Container, Cover and Terminals. Where physical damage is present, replace the battery.
  • Check the Indicator (If the battery has the Indicator). Always look right down when viewing the Indicator and lightly tap the Indicator on the battery to dislodge any air bubbles

 Hankook AtlasBX – Technical Information, Battery Maintenance, Battery testing procedure, Good Condition, Charging Necessary, Replace Battery 01Good Condition


 Hankook AtlasBX – Technical Information, Battery Maintenance, Battery testing procedure, Good Condition, Charging Necessary, Replace Battery 02Charging Necessary
 
 Hankook AtlasBX – Technical Information, Battery Maintenance, Battery testing procedure, Good Condition, Charging Necessary, Replace Battery 03Replace Battery
 

Voltage check

  • If OCV is below 12.4V, recharge the battery immediately.


Discharge Test(Load Test)

  • Connect the battery tester to battery terminals.
  • Measure the temperature of the battery around.
  • Set the battery tester ampere values for ½ of the CCA rating.
  • Apply the load for 15 seconds and read the voltage.
  • If the battery fails the load test twice, replace it.
  • Sometimes, electronic testers such as MIDTRONICS, SNAP-ON and etc. are used instead of load tester.
  • Electronic testers are only suitable for batteries that have been in use for a certain time.
  • They cannot rate the performance of new or unused batteries.
  • For this reason, we recommend the test defined in global standards to confirm rated specifications.

Automotive lead-acid batteries are commonly referred to as starting batteries, which are generally 12 volts (12V) and are rechargeable.

These batteries supply power to the starter and ignition system to start the engine and to power additional auxiliary items such as clocks, computers, navigation systems and any other device that requires constant power.

Lead-acid batteries also supply extra power needed when the vehicle’s electrical load exceeds the supply from the charging system (alternator) and acts as a voltage stabilizer in the electrical system, evening out voltage spikes and preventing them from damaging other components in the electrical system.

A 12V lead-acid battery contains six separate cells at two volts each and a 6 volt with 3 seperate cells at two volts each.

The cells are connected in series by connections through the cell partitions. Each cell contains an element that consists of positive and negative plates.

The battery is then filled with liquid electrolyte (a solution of sulfuric acid and water) or as it is commonly called, battery acid.

Batteries are made of five basic components:

  1. Positive plates
  2. Negative plates
  3. Separators – usually a micro-porous polyethylene synthetic material
  4. Polypropylene container
  5. Liquid electrolyte

Plates are comprised of two parts – the grid and the paste, both made of lead. The paste is soft and is the active material that chemically stores the energy. The grid provides a skeletal framework for paste adherence. Grids are made of lead alloys that resist corrosion and conduct electricity to and from the plate.

Positive and negative plates are stacked in an alternating fashion, with separators between the plates to prevent electrical shorting and to enable battery acid to flow back and forth. Both the positive and negative plates are connected at the top by a cast-on-strap that is welded to the plates.

  • Wet Maintenance free batteries are designed with Lead and Calcium alloy in the positive and negative plate chemistry or formulation.
  • A more functional and effective design than traditional batteries with removable vent caps.
  • Sealed batteries of this design have longer water retention and are a far more robust battery for today’s climates and conditions.

Other benefits include:

  • Less preventive maintenance due to less water loss
  • More forgiving when accidentally overcharged
  • Reduced terminal corrosion and ventilation
  • Lower discharge rate
  • Less risk to users due to it’s maintenance-free construction
  • Higher charge acceptance

Batteries can easily be divided in two ways, by application and construction. The major applications are starting, dual purpose, and deep cycle.

The major construction types are WET (flooded), GEL (gelled), and AGM (Absorbed Glass Mat).

Sealed batteries are commonly known as maintenance free batteries. They are made with vents that (usually) cannot be removed.

A standard auto or marine maintenance free battery is sealed, but not fully leak proof. Sealed batteries have a valve allowing gas to vent during charging.

AGM (absorbed glass mat) batteries contain a glass mat separator that absorbs the electrolyte solution between the battery plates. The material’s design enables the fiberglass to be saturated with electrolyte – and to store the electrolyte in a “dry” or suspended state rather than in free liquid form.

Absorbed Glass Mat (AGM) batteries have a glass mat between the plates. They have all of the advantages of the “Maintenance Free” batteries plus:

Much safer then wet batteries (due to hydrogen gas recombination during charging)

Do not require water

Lower self-discharge rate

In the perfect conditions AGM batteries can offer longer service life

Better vibration resistance & endurance

Can be used in saltwater applications

Spill proof and offers flexibility in mounting directions (follow manufacturers
guide lines)

Can be used inside a semi-enclosed area, like the passenger compartment or trunk

No sulfation from electrolyte stratification or water loss

Gel batteries are non-spillable, a silica gel is added to the electrolyte to reduce movement inside the battery case. To reduce gassing many gel batteries also use one-way valves in place of open vents, this helps the normal internal gasses to recombine back into water. Gel cells must be charged at a lower voltage than flooded or AGM to prevent excess gas from damaging the cells. Fast charging them on a conventional charger without using the appropriate Gel setting may permanently damage the battery.

Wet Maintenance free batteries are designed with Lead and Calcium alloy in the positive and negative plate chemistry or formulation.

A more functional and effective design than traditional batteries with removable vent caps.

Sealed batteries of this design have longer water retention and are a far more robust battery for today’s climates and conditions.

Other benefits are:

  1. Less preventive maintenance due to less water loss
  2. More forgiving when accidentally overcharged
  3. Reduced terminal corrosion and ventilation
  4. Lower discharge rate
  5. Less risk to users due to it’s maintenance-free construction

Marine/RV batteries are available in three different versions–starting, dual purpose, and deep cycle.

The starting marine/RV battery is designed similar to that of a wet car/starting battery with carrying handles and is designed for high current and shallow discharges. The wet dual purpose marine/RV battery is a hybrid between a starting and deep cycle battery that is specifically designed for high vibration in marine/RV applications.

The deep cycle marine/RV battery is designed for deep discharge applications such as a trolling motor, golf cart, AWP and floor care equipment.

A marine/RV deep cycle or dual purpose battery will work as a starting battery if it can produce enough current to start the engine.

Good ventilation is required for all wet (or “flooded”) batteries to dissipate the gasses produced during charging.

For saltwater applications use only a sealed AGM or Gel Cell battery to prevent the formation of deadly chlorine gas that can occur if battery electrolyte is mixed with saltwater.

Our AGM technology provides the best values for Start-Stop vehicles, as well as premium vehicles with increase electrical loads. Through the special AGM design, AGM batteries are premium concept batteries that feature up to 4x longer battery cycle life, faster charging, 100% leak and spill proof and more.


Core Technology

  • X-FRAME plus
  • Carbon Plus
  • Ultra Micro Fiber


Advantages

  • 4x longer idling stop life cycle
  • 150% increase in charge acceptance
  • Starting power up 130%
  • Optimal safety for passengers



All batteries, regardless of their chemical make up, undergo a process called local action or self-discharge. The rate or speed at which this process occurs is dependent upon the chemical reactants in the battery’s composition. The chemical reactants in a lead-acid battery consist of lead dioxide or lead peroxide in the positive electrode, sponge lead in the negative electrode and sulfuric acid in a dilute solution, called electrolyte. One basic principal in chemistry states that as the quantity of reactants increases, the rate of reaction increases. The number of plates in each cell, the density of the active material, and the concentration of pure sulfuric acid in the electrolyte solution all play a part in the rate at which the battery self-discharges during storage.


emperature plays a critical role in the performance of a battery. At higher temperatures, battery capacity generally increases, usually at the cost of battery life. As the temperature increases, the rate of reaction increases. A general rule of thumb is that every 10°F increase in temperature results in a two to three fold increase in reaction rate. Therefore, storing batteries in a hot environment accelerates the self-discharge characteristic. At lower temperatures, the battery capacity generally decreases. Furthermore, as the temperature decreases, the rate of reaction decreases, slowing the self-discharge characteristic. Figure 1 shows the standing losses of a Trojan T-105 deep-cycle battery at various temperatures. In extremely cold climates, batteries stored outdoors may be subjected to freezing. Freezing usually results in irreparable damage to the plates and containers. It is therefore imperative that batteries that are subjected to freezing temperatures be stored fully charged or at a high state of charge. 


Specific Gravity State of Charge Freezing Temperature

  • 1.280 - 100% charged  (will freeze at -92.0°F)
  • 1.265 - 92% charged (will freeze at  -71.3°F)
  • 1.250 - 85% charged (will freeze at -62.0°F)
  • 1.200 - 62% charged (will freeze at -16.0°F)
  • 1.150 - 40% charged (will freeze at + 5.0°F)
  • 1.100 - 20% charged (will freeze at +19.0°F)

In order to provide the best value and optimum quality, all cartridges are not able to be refilled. We continue to strive to improve the service, add additional cartridges when they become available and will discontinue certain cartridges as they become obsolete.

Only the most popular original HP, Canon, Epson, and Brother inkjet cartridges are supported. Remanufactured, private label and aftermarket ink tanks are not supported for refilling. Original manufacturer trademark logo must be visible on cartridge’s label in order to be supported for refilling. Laser/toner cartridges are not supported for refilling.

Cartridges are ready in an hour depending on the quantity dropped off and the cartridge type. We will give you a pick-up time based upon drop off. 

We closely match or exceed the amount of ink you get in a new cartridge.

A refilled integrated cartridge (i.e. those found in 2-cartridge printer models) should be used within 90 days of refill, and remain in the plastic clip until ready for use. Whereas individual ink tanks/cartridges (i.e. those cartridges found in all 4, 5 and 6 cartridge-based printers) can be used within 1-year of refill

We recommend that you refill a cartridge as soon as the print quality begins to degrade. Continuing to print a cartridge that is running dry will damage it and reduce the possibility of being refilled.

The number of refills depends on many factors but, most importantly, how well you take care of your cartridge. A well cared for integrated cartridge can be refilled multiple times. Whereas individual ink tanks/cartridges (i.e. those found in all 4, 5 and 6 cartridge-based printers) can refilled over and over until the cartridge becomes damaged or leaks.

As soon as you remove the cartridge from your printer, place it into a plastic clip. This will protect the cartridge and prevent it from drying out. If you do not have the clip, place 1 to 3 cartridges in a letter sized envelope or the antistatic bag provided with your last purchase . Be careful not to rub print heads together when transporting. Never touch, clean or place tape over the print head nozzles. Keep in cool place. Bring the cartridge to Lakehead Inkjet & Toner for refilling as soon as possible after removing it from your printer.

Each cartridge is tested after refilling to verify that ink is flowing through the nozzles correctly.

Ink quality does make a difference in print quality. We use cartridge specific ink to match the original manufacturers colors and to ensure the highest possible output quality for each cartridge type.

Yes, the results you will get from a refilled cartridge will closely match the results of a new cartridge. For most consumers, there will be no significant difference in everyday printing quality. Refilling your cartridge is an easy and cost effective way of supplying your printer with ink. Whether printing with new or refilled cartridges, always use inkjet specific paper for best printing results.

Some printers have trouble recognizing refilled cartridges. Generally you can ignore low ink messages until the print quality begins to degrade.

We can recycle the cartridge for you and no charge is applied. Then, just purchase a new cartridge at the lowest local price and bring it to Lakehead Inkjet & Toner for a refill the next time you run out of ink.

Federal law prohibits any company from requiring you to purchase only their products and prohibits a manufacturer from voiding your machine's warranty simply by using alternative cartridge solutions.